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## MATH

**MATH**

**Hampton School DistrictMath Competencies and Standards for Grade 7**

▪ Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.

▪ Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

▪ Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.

▪ Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers.

▪ Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

▪ Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.

▪ Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.)

▪ Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

▪ Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p - q = p + (-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts.

▪ Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number.

▪ Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

▪ Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

▪ Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship.

▪ Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate.

▪ Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

▪ Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

▪ Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn.

▪ Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.

▪ Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

▪ Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers, in any form, using tools strategically

▪ Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

▪ Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px+q > r or px+q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem.

▪ Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. Ex., a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that "increase by 5%" is the same as "multiply by 1.05."

▪ Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

▪ Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

▪ Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids.

▪ Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.

▪ Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

▪ Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

▪ Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

▪ Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

▪ Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

▪ Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

▪ Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

▪ Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

▪ Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

▪ Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

▪ Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.

▪ Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

▪ Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.

▪ Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

▪ Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling double sixes"), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

▪ Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

▪ Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

▪ Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

▪ Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

▪ Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

▪ Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

Hampton School District

Math Competencies and Standards for Grade 7

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